Winnie The Pooh Bear


ยินดีต้อนรับเข้าสู่เว็บบล็อกของNitchakarn Kwanjai

วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 14 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2556

History of coffee


In the Ethiopian highlands, where the legend of Kaldi, the goatherd, originated, coffee trees grow today as they have for centuries. Though we will never know with certainty, there probably is some truth to the Kaldi legend.

It is said that he discovered coffee after noticing that his goats, upon eating berries from a certain tree, became so spirited that they did not want to sleep at night.

Kaldi dutifully reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery who made a drink with the berries and discovered that it kept him alert for the long hours of evening prayer.  Soon the abbot had shared his discovery with the other monks at the monastery, and ever so slowly knowledge of the energizing effects of the berries began to spread.  As word moved east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula, it began a journey which would spread its reputation across the globe.

Today coffee is grown in a multitude of countries around the world. Whether it is Asia or Africa, Central or South America, the islands of the Caribbean or Pacific, all can trace their heritage to the trees in the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau.

coffeegatheringThe Arabian Peninsula

The Arabs were the first, not only to cultivate coffee but also to begin its trade.  By the fifteenth century, coffee was being grown in the Yemeni district of Arabia and by the sixteenth century it was known in Persia, Egypt, Syria and Turkey.

Its popularity was perhaps due, in part, to the fact that Muslims, forbidden alcoholic drink by the Koran, found coffee's energizing properties to be an acceptable substitute.

ThehistoryCoffee was not only drunk in homes but also in the many public coffee houses -- called qahveh khaneh -- which began to appear in cities across the Near East. The popularity of the coffee houses was unequaled and people frequented them for all kinds of social activity. Not only did they drink coffee and engage in conversation, but they also listened to music, watched performers, played chess and kept current on the news of the day.  In fact, they quickly became such an important center for the exchange of information that the coffee houses were often referred to as 'Schools of the Wise.'

With thousands of pilgrims visiting the holy city of Mecca each year from all over the world, word of the 'wine of Araby' as the drink was often called, was beginning to spread far beyond Arabia. In an effort to maintain its complete monopoly in the early coffee trade, the Arabians continued to closely guard their coffee production.

Coffee Comes to Europe

European travellers to the Near East brought back stories of the unusual dark black beverage. By the 17th century, coffee had made its way to Europe and was becoming popular across the continent. Opponents were overly cautious, calling the beverage the 'bitter invention of Satan.' With the coming of coffee to Venice in 1615, the local clergy condemned it. The controversy was so great that Pope Clement VIII was asked to intervene. Before making a decision however, he decided to taste the beverage for himself. He found the drink so satisfying that he gave it Papal approval.
coffeecomestovienna1Despite such controversy, in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Holland, coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication. In England 'penny universities' sprang up, so called because for the price of a penny one could purchase a cup of coffee and engage in stimulating conversation.  By the mid-17th century, there were over 300 coffee houses in London, many of which attracted patrons with common interests, such as merchants, shippers, brokers and artists.
Many businesses grew out of these specialized coffee houses. Lloyd's of London, for example, came into existence at the Edward Lloyd's Coffee House.

The New World

In the mid-1600's, coffee was brought to New Amsterdam, a location later called New York by the British.

Though coffee houses rapidly began to appear, tea continued to be the favored drink in the New World until 1773 when the colonists revolted against a heavy tax on tea imposed by King George.  The revolt, known as the Boston Tea Party, would forever change the American drinking preference to coffee.

Plantations Around the World

As demand for the beverage continued to spread, there was tense competition to cultivate coffee outside of Arabia. Though the Arabs tried hard to maintain their monopoly, the Dutch finally succeeded, in the latter half of the 17th century, to obtain some seedlings. Their first attempts to plant them in India failed but they were successful with their efforts in Batavia, on the island of Java in what is now Indonesia.  The plants thrived and soon the Dutch had a productive and growing trade in coffee. They soon expanded the cultivation of coffee trees to the islands of Sumatra and Celebes.

The Dutch did a curious thing, however.  In 1714, the Mayor of Amsterdam presented a gift of a young coffee plant to King Louis XIV of France. The King ordered it to be planted in the Royal Botanical Garden in Paris. In 1723, a young naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu obtained a seedling from the King's plant. Despite an arduous voyage -- complete with horrendous weather, a saboteur who tried to destroy the seedling and a pirate attack -- he managed to transport it safely to Martinique.  Once planted, the seedling thrived and is credited with the spread of over 18 million coffee trees on the island of Martinique in the next 50 years.  It was also the stock from which coffee trees throughout the Caribbean, South and Central America originated.

Coffee is said to have come to Brazil in the hands of Francisco de Mello Palheta who was sent by the emperor to French Guiana for the purpose of obtaining coffee seedlings. But the French were not willing to share and Palheta was unsuccessful. However, he was said to have been so handsomely engaging that the French Governor's wife was captivated. As a going-away gift, she presented him with a large bouquet of flowers.  Buried inside he found enough coffee seeds to begin what is today a billion-dollar industry.

In only 100 years, coffee had established itself as a commodity crop throughout the world.  Missionaries and travellers, traders and colonists continued to carry coffee seeds to new lands and coffee trees were planted worldwide.  Plantations were established in magnificent tropical forests and on rugged mountain highlands. Some crops flourished, while others were short-lived.  New nation's were established on coffee economies.  Fortunes were made and lost.  And by the end of the 18th century, coffee had become one of the world's most profitable export crops.


Chocolate is a psychoactive food. It is made from the seeds of the tropical cacao tree. The cacao tree was named by the 17th century Swedish naturalist, Linnaeus. The Greek term theobroma means literally "food of the gods". Chocolate has also been called the food of the devil; but the theological basis of this claim is obscure.
        Cacao beans were used by the Aztecs to prepare a hot, frothy beverage with stimulant and restorative properties. Chocolate itself was reserved for warriors, nobility and priests. The Aztecs esteemed its reputed ability to confer wisdom and vitality. Taken fermented as a drink, chocolate was also used in religious ceremonies. The sacred concoction was associated with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. Emperor Montezuma allegedly drank 50 goblets a day. Aztec taxation was levied in cacao beans. 100 cacao beans could buy a slave. 12 cacao beans bought the services of courtesan.
        The celebrated Italian libertine Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) took chocolate before bedding his conquests on account of chocolate's reputation as a subtle aphrodisiac. More recently, a study of 8000 male Harvard graduates showed that chocoholics lived longer than abstainers. Their longevity may be explained by the high polyphenol levels in chocolate. Polyphenols reduce the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and thereby protect against heart disease. Such theories are still speculative.
        Placebo-controlled trials suggest chocolate consumption may subtly enhance cognitive performance. As reported by Dr Bryan Raudenbush (2006), scores for verbal and visual memory are raised by eating chocolate. Impulse-control and reaction-time are also improved. This study needs replicating.
         A symposium at the 2007 American Association for the Advancement of Science - hyped as a potentially "mind-altering experience" - presented evidence that chocolate consumption can be good for the brain. Experiments with chocolate-fed mice suggest that flavanol-rich cocoa stimulates neurovascular activity, enhancing memory and alertness. This research was partly funded by Mars, Inc.
        Coincidentally or otherwise, many of the worlds oldest supercentenarians, e.g. Jeanne Calment (1875-1997) and Sarah Knauss (1880-1999), were passionately fond of chocolate. Jeanne Calment habitually ate two pounds of chocolate per week until her physician induced her to give up sweets at the age of 119 - three years before her death aged 122. Life-extensionists are best advised to eat dark chocolate rather than the kinds of calorie-rich confectionery popular in America.
        In the UK, chocolate bars laced with cannabis are popular with many victims of multiple sclerosis. This brand of psychoactive confectionery remains unlicensed.
         Chocolate as we know it today dates to the inspired addition of triglyceride cocoa butter by Swiss confectioner Rodolphe Lindt in 1879. The advantage of cocoa butter is that its addition to chocolate sets a bar so that it will readily snap and then melt on the tongue. Cocoa butter begins to soften at around 75 F; it melts at around 97 F.
         Today, chocolates of every description are legal, unscheduled and readily available over the counter. Some 50% of women reportedly claim to prefer chocolate to sex, though this response may depend on the attributes of the interviewer.
        In 2007, a UK study suggested that eating dark chocolate was more rewarding than passionate kissing. More research is needed to replicate this result.
        More than 300 different constituent compounds in chocolate have been identified. Chocolate clearly delivers far more than a brief sugar high. Yet its cocktail of psychochemical effects in the central nervous system are poorly understood. So how does it work?

CHOCOLATE : the Psychoactive Cocktail

        Chocolate contains small quantities of anandamide, an endogenouscannabinoid found in the brain. Sceptics claim one would need to consume several pounds of chocolate to gain any very noticeable psychoactive effects; and eat a lot more to get fully stoned. Yet it's worth noting that N-oleolethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine, two structural cousins of anandamide present in chocolate, both inhibit the metabolism of anandamide. It has been speculated that they promote and prolong the feeling of well-being induced by anandamide.
        Chocolate contains caffeine. But the caffeine is present only in modest quantities. It is easily obtained from other sources. Indeed a whole ounce of milk chocolate contains no more caffeine than a typical cup of "decaffeinated" coffee.
        Chocolate's theobromine content may contribute to - but seems unlikely to determine - its subtle but distinctive psychoactive profile. Surprisingly, perhaps, recent research suggests that pure theobromine may be superior to opiates as a cough medicine due to its action on the vagus nerve.
        Chocolate also contains tryptophan. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. It is the rate-limiting step in the production of the mood-modulating neurotransmitter serotonin. Enhanced serotonin function typically diminishes anxiety. Yet tryptophan can normally be obtained from other sources as well; and only an unusually low-protein, high-carbohydrate meal will significantly increase its rate of intake into the brain.
        Like other palatable sweet foods, consumption of chocolate triggers the release of endorphins, the body's endogenous opiates. Enhanced endorphin-release reduces the chocolate-eater's sensitivity to pain. Endorphins probably contribute to the warm inner glow induced in susceptible chocoholics. This sensation explains why chocolate gifts are a great way to bring joy to a loved one.
        Acute monthly cravings for chocolate amongst pre-menstrual women may be partly explained by its rich magnesium content. Magnesium deficiency exacerbates PMT. Before menstruation, too, levels of the hormone progesterone are high. Progesterone promotes fat storage, preventing its use as fuel; elevated pre-menstrual levels of progesterone may cause a periodic craving for fatty foods. One study reported that 91% of chocolate-cravings associated with the menstrual cycle occurred between ovulation and the start of menstruation. Chocolate cravings are admitted by 15% of men and around 40% of women. Cravings are usually most intense in the late afternoon and early evening.
        Cacao and chocolate bars contain a group of neuroactive alkaloids known astetrahydro-beta-carbolines. Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines are also found in beer, wine and liquor; they have been linked to alcoholism. But the possible role of these chemicals in chocolate addiction remains unclear.
        One UK study of the human electroencephalographic (EEG) response to chocolate suggests that the odour of chocolate significantly reduces theta activityin the brain. Reduced theta activity is associated with enhanced relaxation. This study needs replication.
        Perhaps chocolate's key ingredient is its phenylethylamine (PEA) "love-chemical". Yet the role of the "chocolate amphetamine" is disputed. Most if not all chocolate-derived phenylethylamine is metabolised before it reaches the CNS. Some people may be sensitive to its effects in very small quantities.
        Phenylethylamine is itself a naturally occurring trace amine in the brain. Phenylethylamine releases dopamine in the mesolimbic pleasure-centres; it peaks during orgasm. Taken in unnaturally high doses, phenylethylamine can produce stereotyped behaviour more prominently even than amphetamine. Phenylethylamine has distinct binding sites but no specific neurons. It helps mediate feelings of attraction, excitement, giddiness, apprehension and euphoria; but confusingly, phenylethylamine has also been described as an endogenous anxiogen. One of its metabolites is unusually high in subjects with paranoid schizophrenia.
        There is even a phenylethylamine theory of depression. Monoamine oxidase type-b has been described as phenylethylaminase; and taking a selective MAO-b inhibitor, such as selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl) or rasagiline (Azilect) can accentuate chocolate's effects. Some subjects report that bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) reduces their chocolate-cravings; but other chocoholics dispute this.

วันพุธที่ 13 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2556


Poems เป็นงานเขียนประเภทหนึ่งที่มีรูปร่างลักษณะเฉพาะแบบ นอกจากจะมีจุดมุ่งหมายที่มุ่งให้ความรื่นรมย์หรือความบันเทิงใจแก่ผู้อ่านแล้ว ยังสะท้อนความรู้สึกนึกคิดหรือปฏิกิริยาของผู้เขียน หรือกวีที่มีต่อประสบการณ์บางอย่าง

ในการอ่านกวีนิพนธ์หรือโคลงกลอนภาษาอังกฤษให้เป็นที่เข้าใจ และสามารถตีความได้ถูกต้อง ควรสังเกตลักษณะบางอย่างที่เกี่ยวกับงานเขียนประเภทนี้ไว้ด้วย
1. ถ้อยคำสำนวน การเรียบเรียงและการเลือกใช้ถ้อยคำสำนวนหรือ คำ
ศั พท์ของกวี ( Poet) มักทำให้บทกลอนเกิดความไพเราะน่าฟัง
2. เสียงและจังหวะ
2.1 เสียง( Sound) หมายถึงระดับเสียงสูงต่ำ รวมทั้งเสียงสระและ พยัญชนะ 
2.2. จังหวะ( Rhythm) เกิดจากการเน้นเสียงหนักเบาของพยางค์ในแต่ละ บรรทัดหรือช่วงของการหยุดออกเสียงในตอนท้ายของแต่ละบรรทัด
2.3 หน่วยเสียงหนึ่งๆในบทกลอนเรียกว่า foot ประกอบขึ้นด้วยพยางค์ที่ออกเสียงหนักและเสียงเบา
2.4 การแบ่งคำภายในบรรทัดออกเป็นหน่วยเสียงพร้อมพยางค์ที่ออกเสียงหนักและเบาเรียกว่าScansion
3. การสัมผัส ( Rhyming ) การสัมผัสคำได้แก่
3.1 การสัมผัสโดยการซ้ำเสียงพยัญชนะภายในบรรทัด เรียกว่า Alliteration เช่น pretty pink pills for pale people
3.2 การสัมผัสเสียงสระที่เหมือนกันภายในบรรทัด เรียกว่า Assonance 
เช่น lady baby free tree 
3.3 การสัมผัสคำสุดท้ายระหว่างบรรทัดเรียกว่า Rhymeเช่น 
I was angry with my friend. 
I told my wrath, my wrath did end. 
I was angry with my foe. 
I told it not, my wrath did grow.
จากตัวอย่างจะเห็นได้ว่าคำสุดท้ายของบรรทัดที่ 1 คือ “friend” สัมผัสกับคำว่า “end” ในบรรทัดที่ 2 และ “foe “คำสุดท้ายของบรรทัดที่ 3 จะสัมผัสกับคำว่า “grow” ซึ่งเป็นคำสุดท้าย ของบรรทัดที่ 4 ตามลำดับ
4. รูปแบบและชนิดของกวีนิพนธ์ภาษาอังกฤษ
4.1 Dramatic poetry มีลักษณะคล้ายกับบทละคร
4.2 Narrative poetry มีลักษณะเป็นเรื่องเล่า
4.3 Lyric poetry เป็นการบรรยายถึงธรรมชาติ หรืออารมณ์ ความ สะเทือนใจ หรือความรู้สึกนึกคิด 
5. บทตอนในคำกลอน จะแบ่งออกเป็นบทๆหรือตอนเรียกว่า Stanza มักจะมีรูปแบบการสัมผัสและจังหวะเพื่อความไพเราะสละสลวยในการเขียนจะมีการเว้นช่องระหว่างบทให้เห็นชัดเจน บทที่ค่อนข้างจะเป็นที่รู้จักดีโดยทั่วๆไปได้แก่ 

5.1 Couplet คือ บทที่ประกอบไปด้วย 2 บรรทัด เช่น

I think that I shall never see. 
A poem lovely as a tree.
5.2Triplet หรือ Tercet เป็นบทที่มี 3 บรรทัด เช่น 

Rain, sun, and rain ! and the tree blossom blows; 
Sun,rain, and sun! and where is he who knows?
From the great deep to the great deep he goes
5.3 Quatrain คือบทที่ประกอบขึ้นด้วย 4 บรรทัด เช่น 

"Get out of bed, you silly fool!
Get up right now, it's time for school.
If you don't dress without a fuss,
I'll throw you naked on the bus!" 

วันอาทิตย์ที่ 10 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2556



1.      Present simple

2.      Present Continuous

3.      Present Perfect

4.      Present Perfect Continuous

1.      Present simple

Form  : Subject + Verb 1 (s, es, -) + complement

Usage : โปรดดูตัวอย่างประกอบก่อน

1.      Cows give milk and sheep give wool.

วัวให้นม  แกะให้ขน

2.       My son goes to Surawitthaya School.


3.      We often go to the Raja Theatre.



ก.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 1 เราจะเห็นว่าเป็น natural truths หรือข้อความจริงตาม

ธรรมชาติ และนี่คือกฎการใช้ประการแรก

ข.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 2 พูดถึง routine หรือกิจวัตรที่ my son ไปโรงเรียนเป็นประจำ

ถือว่าเป็นการกระทำที่ถาวร (permanence) นี่คือกฎการใช้ประการที่ 2

ค.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 3 เราจะเป็นว่าเป็น repetition of action หรือการกระทำซ้ำไป

ซ้ำมา ซึ่งเป็นกฎการใช้ประการที่ 3

2.      Present Continuous

Form  : Subject + is/am/are + V ing + Complement

Usage : โปรดดูตัวอย่างประกอบก่อน

1.      The sun is shining so it is a lovely day for a picnic.

ดวงอาทิตย์กำลังทอแสง ดังนั้นวันนี้จึงเป็นวันที่เหมาะแก่การพักผ่อนตากอากาศ

2.      Sunee is coming here next week.


3.      She enters the room while I am reading a newspaper.


สรุปการใช้ Tenses 2

4.      Winai is working at the Physic Center Publishing Company.



ก.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 1 แสดงว่าเป็นเหตุการณ์ที่กำลังเกิดขึ้นในขณะนั้นซึ่งเป็นกฎ


ข.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 2 เป็นการแสดงเหตุการณ์ที่จะเกิดขึ้นในอนาคตอันใกล้ จะ

เห็นว่ามี time signal บ่งอบอยู่คือ next week ซึ่งเป็นกฎการใช้ประการที่สอง

ค.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 3 จะเห็นว่ามีเหตุการณ์ 2 อย่างเกิดขึ้น เหตุการณ์ที่กำลัง

ดำเนินอยู่ ใช้รูป continuous from ซึ่งเป็นกฎการใช้ประการที่สาม

ง.       จากตัวอย่างที่ 4 เป็นการแสดงถึงการกระทำชั่วคราวไม่ถาวร

(temporary action) ซึ่งเป็นกฎการใช้ประการที่สี่

หมายเหตุ         กริยาต่อไปนี้ไม่ใช้ในรูป continuous from ได้แก่ be, think, know, recognize,

understand, believe, desire, wish, love, realize, forget, fell, see, hear, taste, smell,
matter, consist, pisses, own, fit, belong, contain, seem, suppose, owe, suit, concern, appear, look และ call  

3.      present Perfect

form  : Subject + have/has + V3 + Complement

Usage : โปรดดูตัวอย่างประกอบก่อน

1.      Peter has worked as an engineer for five years.

ปีเตอร์ทำงานหน้าที่วิศวกรมาเป็นเวลา 5 ปีแล้ว

2.      I have not seen Peter Since last Friday


3.      I have already made up my mind what to do.



ก.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 1-2 แสดงถึงการกระทำที่เกิดขึ้นในอดีตและยังดำเนินต่อเนื่อง

มาจนถึงปัจจุบัน ซึ่งดำเนินต่อไปในอนาคตโดยปกติมีคำว่า for, since

ข.      จากตัวอย่างที่ 3 จะมีคำวิเศษบ่งบอกอยู่ คือ already นอกจากนี้ก็มีคำว่า

frequently, recently, never, ever, just

สรุปการใช้ Tenses 3

4.      Present Perfect Continuous

Form : Subject + have/has been + V ing + Complement

Usage : โปรดดูตัวอย่างประกอบก่อน

1.      Peter has been living in Germany since 1952.

ปีเตอร์อาศัยอยู่ประเทศเยอรมันนีมาตลอดตั้งแต่ปี 1952.

2.      I have been waiting for an hour exactly.

ผมรอมาเป็นเวลา 1 ชั่วโมงแล้ว


            จากตัวอย่างที่ 1-2 จะเห็นได้ว่า ได้มีเหตุการณ์หนึ่งเกิดขึ้นตั้งแต่อดีตเรื่อยมา
จนถึงปัจจุบัน และยังแสดง
repetition ของเหตุการณ์นั้นด้วย


1.      “What are your future plans?”

“I’m going to move out of the city as soon as I…………….” (UE 2525)

a. graduate                                                      b. shall graduate

c. shall be graduated                                       d. have been graduated

2.      “Do you think they well be fired?”

“Whether they will be fired or not ………..on the final decision of the committee.”(UE2525)

a. depend                                                        b. depends

c. is depending                                                d. are depending

3.      “I heard them quarrelling bitterly.”

“And ……..will surely end their marriage.” (UE2525)

a. what is happening now                                b. they are quarrelling now

c. why they quarrel now                                   d. this is happening now

4.      “Who is going to help you do this assignment ?”

“………………………..” (UE2525)

a. I will do it lonely                                            b. I lonely will do it

c. I will do it alone                                            d. t will do alone it

สรุปการใช้ Tenses 4

5.      “why is the patient feeling much better, Doctor?”

“She hope to return to Chumporn where she …………..for ten years.” (UE2527)

a. lived                                                             b. has lived

c. had lived                                                      d. had been living

6.      “It seems that drug addiction has swept through the world like a plague.”

“Yes, men and drugs…………….inseparable like the back and front of one’s hand.” (UE2527)

a. have always never been                              b. have nearly always been

c. have nearly been always                             d. have been always nearly

7.      “Don’t you get an upset stomach with very hot food?”

“No……………………” (UE2527)

a. I used to it.                                                   b. I used to get it.

c. I’m used to it.                                               d. I was used to eating it.

8.      Up to the present time she …………………writing her scientific report yet.

(UE 2521)

a. had not finished                                           b. has not finished

c. did not finish                                                            d. does not finish

9.      “Any news from the headquarters?”

“Up to this time on news………………….received.” (UE 2523)

a. has been                                                     b. had been

c. has                                                              d. is

10.  The students will go home as soon as they ………….their examinations.

(UE 2521)

a. will finish                                                      b. finish

c. will be finishing                                             d. finished